Diabetes mellitus commonly referred simply as diabetes is a medical condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or does not properly respond to insulin. Insulin is a hormone which plays a crucial role in absorption of glucose and its transformation into energy. If not produced in required amounts or if cells fail to use insulin properly the glucose accumulates in the blood and increases the blood sugar levels which can cause various complications and serious health risks.
There are three basic types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes sometimes referred as insulin-depended diabetes is the severest type of the disease which typically occurs before the age of 35, most commonly between 10 and 16 years of age. It develops very rapidly and can be fatal without regular insulin injections. Most people suffer from type 2 diabetes which develops gradually and commonly affects people older than 40 years of age most often people who are overweight or obese. The third type of diabetes – gestational diabetes greatly resembles the type 2 diabetes and affects pregnant women. After childbirth it either improves or disappears but greatly increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
All types of diabetes require treatment – regular insulin injections or taking medications depending on type of diabetes, while managing of all types of diabetes requires monitoring blood sugar levels and healthy lifestyle which includes healthy diet and adequate physical activity.